In many cases, these steel coils are extremely large – weighing up to 20 tonnes. Carl KM1H----- Original Message -----From: "Bill and Liz McHugh" To: Sent: Saturday, April 23, 2011 8:02 AM. 4 microhenries. 4 φ30 M42004 Inner tooth washer M4 M42018 Tapping screw M4x8 M42017 Hose clamp M42016 Pipe No. The method appears to be based on an equation in J. Full size dipole for 160 meters @ 268 feet long. IK-STIC -- multi-band vertical dipole antenna used for quick set-up and quick band change -- From W2IK. The antenna is driven either at one of the radiator wires, or more often at one end of the top-load, by bringing the wires of the top-load diagonally down to the transmitter. High Q loading coil will reduce the power loss in the loading coil, but also. 80m : Rr = 11. Post #1101. (22 mm) form Number of turns Coil length. Let’s say you have a traditional, mono band, 20M 5/8 Wave vertical antenna, and you decide to replace the big loading coil with a tuner so you can use it on other bands. Best possible improvement for a 2/3-height loading coil relative to base loading is typically 3 dB. I have learned a lot about short vertical antennas and I hope to try some other things with it. The MK1 can also be shortened for 10m and 6m. Enter a length between 1 and 250 feet. Full size dipole for 30 meters @ 47. The web site…. The first vertical antenna at GW4ALG was installed on the gable-end wall at the back of our (brick-built) house. 5 turns on a 1-1/2" PVC form. Nice and simple. With full sized elements, the tip to tip length would be about 70' - probably too much antenna to manage with our towers. Attached to the bottom turn of the coil is a. Direct Grounding. Interior of the matching unit. It's an 1/8 wave vertical on 160 meters also. The entire kit, including the large numeral 4:1 RF transformer/balun, arrived in 2 large boxes. Near the center of the vertical radiator B. 5mm2 HO7V-R. Adding the capacitive hat makes the current go to zero at the end of the hat, so additional current flows in the vertical part of the antenna. The coils on the end of the 40M length are there to allow the overall length to be shorter. It has a plain interior because I believe that the center should contain supporting structure such as a piece of ABS plumbing pipe, or a wooden dowel epoxied in place. Every 10 turns or so, there is a tap that comes out from the coil, giving you something to attach the transmitter signal to. HV7A has 5 band capability—6m/2m/70cm, plus 2 HF bands though use of loading coils. IMPORTANT Note that at my QTH, the installation height of dipoles is basically limited to 2 m (6 ft). View the manual for AV14AVQ View the manufactures page for AV14AVQ View the eham review page for AV14AVQ The AV-14AVQ 18 foot radiator has a loading coil at its base that allows precision antenna resonating. The tuner automatically takes care of the bandwidth situation. The loading coil helps, but my little QRP signal with the short antenna losses is not going to overcome the s8, s9 noise floors that many suburban stations have on 80. One of my next projects will be building some Petlowany coils for 20 and 40m. The tubing then slides into a bracket designed to hold a flag. • the poles are 9m long which is a little less than a quarter wavelength on 40m and half wave on 20m; this is taken into account with the matching systems described below. One machine accomplishes both upending and loading. Because of the "shortening" effect of the series capacitor, the upper coil. The HV7A is supplied with HVC28 (10m) loadi ng coil. Coil-Shortened Vertical Antenna Calculator. 40 meter band antennas projects category is a curation of 208 web resources on , The 40M Extended Double Zepp, Helically wound antenna for 40m, Shrunken 40 Meter Phased Quads. The calculation refers to either a loaded 1/4 wave (typically a vertical, in which case flip the picture below through 90 o) or a loaded dipole, in which case the dimensions refer refer to one arm and two coils will be required. Price : US$625. You simply plug your radiator wire into the top and you're on the air on 40m. It also acts as a loading coil on 80m. The twinlead. 2m above ground. I was hoping to get it sorted, but until I can source enough copper wire for the coils, I can’t finish the 80m section of the inverted V. I then began trimming the 80 meter elements. The Center-Loaded Off-Center-Fed Dipole (CL-OCFD) was invented and first described by yours truly, Serge Y. Top-capacitance loading improves radiating efficiency in two ways:. Otherwise there will be loss due to coil resistance and skin effect from adjacent turns. Below is one example of how to build and mount a. The Mini Pod comes with 3 legs, center hub, 3/8 24. 5 (ARRL Antenna Book, 22 Ed. Theoretical Results from Perfect Antenna and Ground Plane 80 M taps have 200 KHz BW set at 3. Off-Center Fed Dipole (OCD) with a vertical dipole (electrically) close to the earth. If the coil were totally removed it would make a respectible 40M short vertical. Our TRSB (Triple-Ratio Switch Balun) is an excellent product for these applications (see our accessories section). Construction Guide: Spiderbeam 40m Add-On Dipole 4 6. for which I was hoping. Let’s say you have a traditional, mono band, 20M 5/8 Wave vertical antenna, and you decide to replace the big loading coil with a tuner so you can use it on other bands. 65' 1" Off-Center Fed Dipole long leg: 43' 5" + short leg: 21' 8" made from an Evans W1JC shortwave antenna (sim to Princeton Sky Wire) Spi-Ro 4:1 balun resonant on 40m (fundamental) plus 20m, 10m, and 6m (harmonics). The SteppIR technology has had a profound impact on improving vertical antenna performance over that of traditional designs - there is no substitute for having a true 1/4 wave vertical on every frequency within the coverage range, without having to “trick” the antenna into being resonant. An X=1000 loading coil with Q = 300 has a parallel equivalent resistance of something like 300 kiloohms. Next is the combination of capacity and. 2 Sevick, "The W 2 FM 1 20-Meter Vertical Beam," QST, June, 1972. 00 Select options; Remote Driver Board Kit (5 Elements) $ 351. The Hi-Q loading coil (Q=360) handles a full kW and will tune CONTINUOSLY from 10-80 M including the NEW 60 M band. using quality coil with large Q- factor In order to get more efficient vertical antenna for 80M band with mechanical height about 0. The TIA is the prefect antenna for any portable activation. When choosing a mounting location, keep the following factors in mind: (1) Resonant frequency of HF antennas can change based on location. Vertical Shoring of the Coil: General Securement & Doorway Protection – Coiled Wire: top spools, top and bottom spools to center spool. Please wash your hands and practise social distancing. needed, cut the coil into two pieces of 61 turns and 13 turns. At a 24° angle you can see that it gives as much energy as the inverted-V dipole. See Figure 2. A rubberized clamping knob is used to secure the plate to a clamp or tripod (1/4" x 20 threads). Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times. The AV-18VS may be installed on a short 1-5/0 inch dimeter mast driven in the ground. See Figure 2. Vandy Vape Pulse X BF RDA - Rebuildable Dripping Atomizer for Squonk/Bottom Feed Devices The Vandy Vape Pulse X BF RDA was designed in collaboration with Tony B. The result is a “rope antenna” about 6. This calculator is designed to give the vertical length (height) of a particular antenna, for the frequency and wavelength chosen. Enter inches 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 inches diameter. The result is a lightweight inductor with great power handling and a Q near 1000. For the latest Amateur Radio news and information, please visit these websites:. 1MHz which resulted in a span of about 67. Full size dipole for 30 meters @ 47. It will work, sort of. 40m Linear-Loaded Dipole I stumbled-upon this antenna design whilst searching for something resonant, but not too lossy for 40m working. I made a tap at 11 turns for the 30M band. V for transmitting. The ends of top-loading capacitance structures should be smooth or balled t0 reduce the chances of corona discharge Spiders, discs, and other horizontal elements, such as crossbars, have a greater capacitance to the mast below the coil thar vertical members such as whips, so they should be somewhat above the coil if they're large. Attic Dipole with Loading Coils. The FT-857/ATAS-120 combo is designed to send all of the necessary DC control signals from the transceiver to the antenna's motor over the antenna feed-line coax cable. This can be done with a knot or a couple of. Extra loading inductance is added in series with the existing resonating coils to bring the resonance down to Top Band, and some components are removed. Made recent contact w/ a 40m net with the antenna in my front yard, plus I just picked up the 80m coil for it, which I'm excited to try as the band has been pretty active at night. An angle of 45° ist adequate. PVC pipe is used for forms. A standard dipole antenna is resonant if constructed with a length of one-half wavelength. Full size dipole for 20 meters @ 35 feet long. This phasing coil may be roughly thought of as the wire in the stub coiled into a coil. IMPORTANT Note that at my QTH, the installation height of dipoles is basically limited to 2 m (6 ft). Form the bare copper wire into a circle to create the ground bus wire and solder. Coil is suspended from ID - Always stays vertical and indexed with tamer. Doing the same process 10 turns of the 1/4 inch round tubing made up the 40 meter coil. Full size dipole for 160 meters @ 268 feet long. Coil Inductance Calculator. From there, I went through several iterations of testing and adjusting to arrive at the final values. Grey wire was used as this is virtually invisible from about 10m way. If 10 meters is the highest band you will be trying to use then the thing would be about 8 feet tall. A technique such as Petlowany loading is also a possibility, see my washing line antenna. Loaded 160m and full size 80m dipole. Base loading requires the smallest amount of inductance to achieve resonance. The calculation refers to either a loaded 1/4 wave (typically a vertical, in which case flip the picture below through 90 o) or a loaded dipole, in which case the dimensions refer refer to one arm and two coils will be required. Attic Dipole with Loading Coils. On the right the coil of large (8AWG/3. V Monoband Vertical for 1. The loading coil is constructed from 1/4 inch copper tubing, and supported by a structure made from PVC plumbing parts. Theory of Coil Antennas Trilochan Fadhi Division of Engineering and Applied Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. The telescopic antenna and the MFJ-67 loading coils are ⅜ " - 24 threaded and can be easily combined. For example, the capacitive loaded 40m loop only decreased the vertical height by 5 ft. JK401 Rotatable Dipole for 40M. Degrees of a Loading Coil. Both the EHU and the 80m coil just came back from Steppir from being fully checked out. For the 40M loading coil, I ended up with 29 turns of #22 enameled wire on a T130-2 toroid. One disadvantage of using a loading coil with a short vertical antenna is that it decreases the SWR bandwidth of the antenna. The coax feeder has to be routed as far away from the lower part of the antenna as possible. Full size dipole for 60 meters @ 90 feet long. 87 mH loading coil. Cut the coil at 63 turns and unwrap the wire to 61 turns. Post #1101. My Favorite Loop. The Hi-Q loading coil (Q=360) handles a full kW and will tune CONTINUOSLY from 10-80 M including the NEW 60 M band. Coil is suspended from ID - Always stays vertical and indexed with tamer. Extra loading inductance is added in series with the existing resonating coils to bring the resonance down to Top Band, and some components are removed. Have you tried the short dipole on 20m? I live in an apartment at 16th floor (concrete with reinforce steel bar buidling) and have problems with proper RF ground and might have space to put out a dipole not exceeding 9m (end-to-end) and about 0. Antenna Currents. An antenna loading coil is an inductor placed in series with an antenna element in order to lower the antenna's resonant frequency. It should measure out to be about 50uh. Full size dipole for 75/80 meters @ 138 feet long. This afternoon, I’ve been playing with an 8 meter fishing pole in the garden, clamped to a 3 meter aluminium pole with 2 x 10 meter elevated radials sloping from the feedpoint at 3 meters to fence height. The vertical element slipped over the toilet brush and a hole drilled through the tubing and handle holds the whole thing in place. The feed point and loading coil at the base are not 1000 watt rated regardless of what the MFJ specs say. July 19, 2014September 17, 2014 Vertical Delta Loops 99 The Vertical Delta Loop • A three sided loop is known as a Vertical Delta loop sitting on the ground. HV7A has 5 band capability—6m/2m/70cm, plus 2 HF bands though use of loading coils. Open the wire gauge and diameter calculator in a separate page. The result is a lightweight inductor with great power handling and increased Q to near 1000 resulting in reduced losses. Get the radials off the ground if you can, and/or use another conductive structure as a counterpoise. Selland Ave. 78 - Fan Dipole Antenna for 80m to 6m. The remaining length, about 10 feet, goes up to the ridge of the roof where the 40m inverted V is mounted. It will work, sort of. Great for Ham Bands and outstanding for image-free shortwave broadcast! Rugged Construction: All aluminum, stainless steel construction ensures years of excellent performance. io Subject: [steppir] Installed Steppir BigIR Vertical with 80m loading coil Good morning everyone, finally able to install my BigIR with 80m coil. Refer to figure 4. (Calculator opens in a separate page. 5 turns on a 1-1/2" PVC form. Theoretical Results from Perfect Antenna and Ground Plane 80 M taps have 200 KHz BW set at 3. 3 uH loading coil, 54% from feedpoint (21 turns on Amidon T200-2) to fit 40/15m dipole in roofspace (total span 15m) Detail of end-isolator with wires folded back and twisted for fine tuning the dipoles for the lower frequencies Detail of end-isolator with clamp for fine tuning the dipoles for the higher frequencies. However, tapping points must be formed at every other turn near one end of the coil, making the winding process a little more complicated. On the good side it has a relatively low takeoff angle compared to a low dipole. This calculator is designed to give the vertical length (height) of a particular antenna, for the frequency and wavelength chosen. I have worked out the coil dims for this using a 1-1/4″ PVC pipe coupler as a coil form. สายอากาศย่าน 40m แนวตั้งขนาดสั้นแบบคอล์ยโหลดกลาง (vertical short center coil loaded antenna) Posted on April 22, 2018 April 23, 2018 by chokelive. Coil Inductance Calculator. Introduction The antenna described here is a 32 foot vertical antenna for the 160m band, which is made out from an Butternut HF2V 80m and 40m dual band vertical. The 25-Foot Untuned Vertical--7 Bands. VHF 1/2wave vertical antenna for the 6-meterband (50 Mhz) RE-A50V12 By Guy, de ON6MU. Included is one 31' radial on a line winder for use on all bands 10 - 40m. Form the bare copper wire into a circle to create the ground bus wire and solder. Experiment and have fun! Hamsticks are available for any HF ham band so it’s possible to go lower than 20m with this idea. Likewise, for the top hat loading, each of the radials may replaced with four 100ohms inductive reactance load coils on the 40m band, the 50ohm coax then. Losses? Discussion in 'Antennas, You could go with a full sized 1/4 wavelength for 20m and have a loading coil and tail for 40m. coils wound on small plastic bottles 2. This online calculator tells you how. I have learned a lot about short vertical antennas and I hope to try some other things with it. It may be used at power levels up to 200 Watts SSB, 100 Watts CW and 25 Watts with digital modes. 2 Inductor location with top-loading Due to windage considerations mobile verticals seldom have much capacitive top-loading but fixed station antennas have (or should have!) as much top-loading as practical. Field Antenna for 40m. 95 * Buy It. A loading coil or. The large diameter yields broadbanded coverage of the 80 Meter Band. I have set the coils as instructed by the manual and hit the ham bands surprisingly well. The loading coil is nominally 8-10 turns of common ¼ in. WORLD'S BEST TREE FELLING TUTORIAL! Way more information than you ever wanted on how to fell a tree! - Duration: 45:25. 00 Add to cart; CrankIR 80m Replacement Kit $ 255. Please Note: Coils are not provided with coil clips. io] On Behalf Of kb8zgl Sent: 28 May 2019 17:27 To: [email protected] These will considerably r. • For best results, the lengths of the 3 sides should be approximately equal • The resistive impedance is ~130 interface with 4:1 BALUN • 2:1 VSWR Bandwidth Covers whole band at 40M and up (~ 4 % of Freq). When the loading coil is installed at the bottom of the vertical radiator, we call it a "base loaded" antenna. Biggir Vertical 00417 $854 32 foot adjustable element, for 40M through 6M. 1/4 wave on 40M with loading coil bypassed. 575" dia x 1. However, there is a way to reduce the overall length of an HF dipole through the use of loading coils. Last edited by ke0ipr. Make Offer - Vintage Hustler NEW-TRONICS MODEL-RFG Vertical Antenna 150" Inc Cable European Antennas SA14-120-3. Selland Ave. I made a tap at 11 turns for the 30M band. A design by VK3JEG is only 66-ft. W1DYJ ~ Larry Banks DXCC WAS VUCC WAC 40M Vertical October 2014 A 40M l/4 Vertical with Elevated Radials Larry Banks, W1DYJ First licensed: 1962 (KN1VFX) W1DYJ since 1966 - Amateur Extra 10 Matthews Way Harpswell ME. I cut a hole in the bottom of the trash container to fit over the toilet brush and mounted it upside down on the brush stand. io [mailto:[email protected] Post #1106 Building a dipole for 40 and 20 meters. Attic Dipole with Loading Coils. Stock availability and shipping volume can delay shipping. 79 Mhz, ideal for DX. 40m - 10 m Multi Band Delta Loop DX antenna. Performance compared to the 40/80/20 coil loaded fan dipole center up at 32 feet was much better on 20 meter and good on 40 meter. The 43-foot Vertical Antenna Advantages -Still can be self-supporting & moderately unobtrusive -Approximately 3x higher radiation resistance than the typical trap or loaded vertical. A center-loaded vertical of the same length is approx. You can simply add a coil to an OCF ( 80 - -10) and with an wire of 10 - 30 feet make it working fine on 160, as i also did. Coil is suspended from ID - Always stays vertical and indexed with tamer. I chose 58' for Mid 80 Meter Operation. Use the Coil Inductance Calculator to design your loading coil. Full size dipole for 60 meters @ 90 feet long. 1 S evick, ' 'The Ground-Image Vertical Antenna. Loading coil explained. EZNEC says you need a base-loading coil of ~7. You can instead use. This means you have to choose which part of the 80m band you want to use and the "spokes" of the capacity hat have to be trimmed to adjust the resonance to the required frequency. efficient vertical antenna requiring no radials and a 21° take-off angle. Direct Grounding. IC-706 Screwdriver Tuning. Loading Coil The 110µH loading coil is used on the version for 80m. If there is little, or no ground system, then the antenna will vary in load and effectiveness, or may not work at all! Design of a 20 Meter Top Loaded Vertical. , at the feedpoint) requires the smallest amount of inductance. MFJ-1795 Vertical Antenna Instructions 2 WARNING: Always mount this antenna so that it is out of the reach of adults as well as children. 300 Watts The Antenna is a full wave loop designed to operate on 40m (7MHz), 15m (21MHz) and 10m (28MHz) witho. Resonance may also be observed at each of the odd. For example, the capacitive loaded 40m loop only decreased the vertical height by 5 ft. The coil, included a 25-turn link winding for connection, via 50 ohm coax, to the TX/RX. One more thought is that I’ll add a 110uH coil to the end of the wire then about 2m more of wire, the idea that it can trap 40m and then act as a loading coil on 80m. 00 Select options; 40/30 Dipole Retrofit for 3 Element 20-6M Yagi $ 732. Antenna Loading Coil Calculation The calculation method is taken from a BASIC program which I got many years ago from OA4/KA2OIG who is hereby gratefully acknowledged. I have set the coils as instructed by the manual and hit the ham bands surprisingly well. The 40 meter loading coil is made from 58 feet/17. With 102" whip, it will resonate from 80m-12m! Great for EMCOM, Mobile, or QRP. Product Code - 40M1TORHEAVY. 80m and 40m Dual-band Vertical Antenna KV2 ・Parts Description Loading Coil for 7MHz M42007 Pipe No. The Center-Loaded Off-Center-Fed Dipole (CL-OCFD) was invented and first described by yours truly, Serge Y. However, one big problem is finding reasonably priced coil stock. The Loading Coil provides tuning to the antenna (it will look capacitive when it is electrically short). You can also roof mount this antenna with the optional AV-14RMQ roof mounting kit. 00 Add to cart. 50 vertical clamp, you would be able to mount the vertical to a balcony rail or table. Attached to the bottom turn of the coil is a. On 40m the loading coil acts as a choke and isolates the extension wire. For example, the capacitive loaded 40m loop only decreased the vertical height by 5 ft. 5 feet long. The coil at left is 1 inch in diameter, has 9 turns, and wound with #14 Thermalese ® (enameled) wire. The second version used two regular lightbulbs with shorter filaments. Loading • You can combine both capacitive top loading and inductive loading. The 28 foot vertical element, and the matching and loading coil, are made with insulated 12 AWG solid wire used for electric utility service. • the poles are 9m long which is a little less than a quarter wavelength on 40m and half wave on 20m; this is taken into account with the matching systems described below. The coil is made by wrapping #16 Nysol insulated wire in a tight spiral around a section of 3" white schedule 40 PVC pipe. 3 φ30 M42003 Pipe No. Load wire coils stacked in a 2-1-2 pattern. Post #1096. See Figure 2. The tubing then slides into a bracket designed to hold a flag. 4 M42001 Tapping screw M4x8 M42017 Inner tooth washer M4 M42018 S trap M42006 Inner tooth washer M4 M42018 Tapping screw M4x8 M42017 Pipe No. 06 inch ) * Cut 2340 mm (92,13 inch) * to have enough wire to connect to the isolator increase each wire with 200 mm, For C take 200 mm twice to have enough wire to cut the wire to specific frequency. Get the radials off the ground if you can, and/or use another conductive structure as a counterpoise. Selland Ave. It should measure out to be about 50uh. I have used a dipole, vertical and loop previously. I have mostly used the transmitter and that is actually fairly OK with just a simple 1/4 lambda antenna, but is open for improvementThe receiver however is a bit c. This loading inductor is near the bottom of a 43-foot tall vertical. HV7A Mobile Antenna System General Information HV7A has 5 band capability—6m/2m/70cm, plus 2 HF bands though use of loading coils. Coil-Shortened Vertical Antenna Calculator. io Subject: [steppir] Installed Steppir BigIR Vertical with 80m loading coil Good morning everyone, finally able to install my BigIR with 80m coil. 2dB better. An HF mobile antenna loading coil should have a high ratio of reactance to resistance to minimize losses. Next is the combination of capacity and. The top of the coil will be finished later. The horizontal FD-4 works as NVIS, the vertical has a good groundwave up to 50 miles, then needs 300 miles to work better as the NVIS FD-4. Careful design and extensive testing has allowed optimisation so that the antenna also operates most effectively on 6m and also 17m with no impact on the 40m operation. Coil is suspended from ID - Always stays vertical and indexed with tamer. (UNUNs are designed to work with resistive loads!). The Hi-Q loading coil (Q=360) handles a full kW and will tune CONTINUOSLY from 10-80 M including the NEW 60 M band. However, if we experiment with inserting the coil into higher locations in the vertical radiator, we find that the current distribution on the antenna. axle options. Full size dipole for 60 meters @ 90 feet long. Much of this is shipped in the form of coils. A coil loaded 40 meter element design was computer optimized for gain and bandwidth. beam Yagi (7 MHz) DXBeam (DXM40-2) 40 meter 2 element beam Yagi (7 MHz). part of it's a loading coil, and part is a matching device. (2) If installing HVC7 (40m) loading coil, install on top (vertical position) only. The loading coils were measured (12. Stay safe and healthy. The minimum installation height of a horizontal dipole is often stated as about 0. Made recent contact w/ a 40m net with the antenna in my front yard, plus I just picked up the 80m coil for it, which I'm excited to try as the band has been pretty active at night. The Nagoya UT-72 is a dual-band magnet mount antenna with over 4 dB of gain. 44 foot vertical, 4 top loading guys, 20 feet each, downslope angle approx 30 degrees. Loading Coil The 110µH loading coil is used on the version for 80m. The top countries of suppliers are China, Japan, and Hong Kong S. HRO Discount Price: $79. It will work, sort of. I did some experiments a while back with a much shorter 40m vertical dipole (2m total, with high-Q air-core coils and large capacity hats) but concluded that on a concrete balcony, the losses were cripplingly bad (high-voltage capacity hats near concrete means lossy capacitive coupling to the environment). Post #1096. For the loading and matching-section coil forms, I use 11/4-inch-diameter pipe so the antenna can be mounted reasonably close to the vehicle. It’s got a bottom loaded coil to get on 40 meters. Experiment and have fun! Hamsticks are available for any HF ham band so it’s possible to go lower than 20m with this idea. • Measuring Efficiency of a Loop or Vertical Antenna the loading coil inductance and placement High-power LMR-400 40m 16. Describe your experience with the MFJ-1792 80/40 top-loaded. A whip antenna is an antenna consisting of a straight flexible wire or rod. Do this carefully so that the holes are opposite each other and in a straight line. 70 cnts) pair of Tx/Rx modules. coil, a capacity hat, and a 3' whip. 4m long with a loading coil 0. This kind of cold roll forming machine is widely used for making various metal wall panels and roof panels for steel constructions, steel structure projects and containment systems etc. A 40 meter dipole in the conventional or inverted-vee configuration is a fine antenna for portable operation, providing reliable communication around the southern states during the daytime. 70 cnts) pair of Tx/Rx modules. 5 SWR from 14. 40 m Loading coil 20 m ¼ W with top hat Capacity Loading (top hat) A ¼ wavelength trans-mission line X velocity factor is a resonant circuit which creates a phase shift at which the open end decouples that frequency from the main element 10 m ¼ W VERTICALS ¼ W Decoupling Stub Multiband A A B B C A C A different connection is possible -that. Coil is suspended from ID - Always stays vertical and indexed with tamer. On a 20mm OD pipe support I wound this coil as stand-alone and not as an extension of 17+15m. soft aluminum or copper tubing. The Stake Stick Vertical - Portable antenna 80 & 40 M Vertical Tiny ATUs for the Trail The Emtec ZM-1 tuner - A tuner that has less loss than most others Building High Power, High Q, Loading Coils Magnetic Loop Antennas - Why is an Magnetic Loop antenna so special? Easy-to-Build PI Network Antenna Tuner Quickie Vertical "Buddipole" - A Portable. If you want a 40M/20M/6M/2M/440MHz antenna, screw the 40M coil on the top of the main mast and the optional 20M coil to the side and you have a 5-band antenna. 00 Select options; 40/30m Base Loading Coil for the SmallIR Mark III $ 446. The major portion of the coil has air as the dielectric when this is done. com Subject: " A 40m band shortened vertical " 「40mバンド短縮垂直アンテナ」 40mVertical I have designed and homebrewed a 40m band shortened vertical of which overall length is about 2m32cm (91 1/2 inches) using a bloom handle purchased at a dollar store. about the height of the coil: think big! Detail of the variometer part of the loading coil, tunable approximately between 0. I am looking at building a half size rotatable 40M dipole. part of it's a loading coil, and part is a matching device. The ratio of the turns squared is the ratio of the transformation. Pretty short for a 40M dipole. In the end, it was back to 40 to get those contacts. A silver wire winding on good isolation materal may produce a coil with Q ~= 250, an air based large diameter loading coil could have Q ~= 800. Post #1100. optimal coil position chart shown at right. 40m : Rr = 34. It has the following major characteristics:. Tuner's Effect at the Antenna. COIL LOADING Loading coils can be installed anywhere along each leg of the shortened dipole. 4 metre length of wire which then connects to a choke / 40m loading coil. Post #1106 Building a dipole for 40 and 20 meters. com Subject: “ A 40m band shortened vertical “ 「40mバンド短縮垂直アンテナ」 40mVertical I have designed and homebrewed a 40m band shortened vertical of which overall length is about 2m32cm (91 1/2 inches) using a bloom handle purchased at a dollar store. (And all my responsibility is hereby disclaimed!) I haven't personally tested these designs, but others have and found them to be satisfactory. The 28 foot vertical element, and the matching and loading coil, are made with insulated 12 AWG solid wire used for electric utility service. 80m, 40m, 20m, 15m, 10m and 6m (3. In most ground-mounted 160, 80, 60 or 40 meter mono-band vertical antenna installations with very good radial systems and high efficiency, feedpoint. A 40 meter dipole in the conventional or inverted-vee configuration is a fine antenna for portable operation, providing reliable communication around the southern states during the daytime. Provision needs to be made to adjust the coil position. This phasing coil may be roughly thought of as the wire in the stub coiled into a coil. 40 meter band antennas projects category is a curation of 208 web resources on , The 40M Extended Double Zepp, Helically wound antenna for 40m, Shrunken 40 Meter Phased Quads. Post #1095. nov 13, 2014 - 43 foot multiband vertical high q add on 80m loading coil--new | zerofive-antennas Stay safe and healthy. Grey wire was used as this is virtually invisible from about 10m way. Direct Grounding. 6 - Efficiency as a function of loading coil position. Check out our resources for adapting to these times. 5” coil has a Q of 500 resulting in very efficient operatio n Stepper motor driven rotary RF switch. The antenna is designed to be flexible so that it does not break easily, and the name is derived from the whip-like motion that it exhibits when disturbed. Eleven turns are close-wound near one end of the form. Basically, the loading coil is operating as a trap. Vertical Antennas - Dirty Little Secrets, Ground/Radial Systems - Click On Tech Notes Vertical Antenna Design -- Trap and Loading Coil Losses With Vertical Antennas By W0DN The Effects of VSWR on Transmitted Power --By James G. Also, an optional base load coil option is available to extend band coverage to 60 and 80 meters. Capacity hat loading is usually on or near the ends of the element for maximum effect and is not really practical For MOXON loop. Sweep from 3. Coil Cradle. Garden aesthetics also demanded antennas have as low a profile as possible; consequently it would have to be base loaded as a large 160m loading coil swinging in the air. Post #1101. A rubberized clamping knob is used to secure the plate to a clamp or tripod (1/4" x 20 threads). io [mailto:[email protected] 071 on side panel - since there is very little reactance - the load looks much like resistance Theta angle is small. ) and also very widely spaced (>3 in. Resonant at 3. net Abstract A coaxial-cable trap dipole antenna installed in the attic provides a surprisingly effective solution to HF operation on the 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 80 meter amateur bands at a QTH with restrictive covenants that prohibit outside antennas. For rigidity, the loading coil also requires two stiffeners made from common 3/4in. Grey wire was used as this is virtually invisible from about 10m way. 45 db of losses that are almost entirely due to near field and far field vertical-polarization losses, with negligible conductor losses. The 10-foot, 40-meter vertical designed for an. Normally, I would have used PVC tubing for a coil form, but I wanted to see if I could gain efficiency with the toroids. EZNEC says you need a base-loading coil of ~7. It shows acceptable reactance meaning that the distance is fine for 20M operation. Degrees of a Loading Coil. 300 Watts The Antenna is a full wave loop designed to operate on 40m (7MHz), 15m (21MHz) and 10m (28MHz) witho. The coil is made by wrapping #16 Nysol insulated wire in a tight spiral around a section of 3" white schedule 40 PVC pipe. Total length of antenna in feet Open the dipole length calculator in a separate page. Resonance may also be observed at each of the odd. The antenna is resonate on both bands and does not require an antenna tuner. Construction Guide: Spiderbeam 40m Add-On Dipole 4 6. It is supported by a guyed 30 foot mast having a top hat capacitive load. If you want 75 Meter. Several vertical radiator wires hang down from the top-load, each attached to its own ground through a loading coil. Refer to figure 4. The basic Buddipole is a kit of coils, rods, telescopic whips, coaxial cable feeders packaged with several other components in convenient carry bags that allows the user to construct a variety of antenna that are capable of operating from the 40M HF bands up to and including the 2M VHF band. Form the bare copper wire into a circle to create the ground bus wire and solder. The base-loading coil required is only a few turns of #12 wire on a ceramic form 4" in diameter, which is far fewer than one would expect. All hoisted up a 40ft pneumatic mast`as required` like changing sails on a yacht ! A K9AY receiving antenna is also in use - see it on YouTube here!. An X=1000 loading coil with Q = 300 has a parallel equivalent resistance of something like 300 kiloohms. Versions 4 and 5 utilized two loading coils. Cut the coil at 63 turns and unwrap the wire to 61 turns. For the 40M loading coil, I ended up with 29 turns of #22 enameled wire on a T130-2 toroid. This would include dielectrics on or near the inductor, since the presence of dielectrics would increase undesirable capacitance. A Tier-Rack® coil rack protects your coils from creasing and flattening, while permitting the coils to be stacked up to 4 racks high. Tags: arrl chapter 9 arrl module 9d. Both the EHU and the 80m coil just came back from Steppir from being fully checked out. The world's largest vaccine maker is mass-producing a COVID-19 vaccine developed by the University of Oxford without knowing whether it works. If there is little, or no ground system, then the antenna will vary in load and effectiveness, or may not work at all! Design of a 20 Meter Top Loaded Vertical. It's an 1/8 wave vertical on 160 meters also. Truly a Diversified and Modifiable Base Station Vertical, that can also be tuned to the Marine Band 28. When it comes to designing a vertical with a loading coil the two major items for the shopping list are the metal tubing for the element and an appropriate former for the coil. The Vertical Antenna, especially the ground mounted ¼ wavelength vertical antenna, has a few upsides and a few downsides. This does NOT take into consideration the type or size of horizontal reflectors, of even if there is a need for them. Hello, I am interested in building a vertical antenna for HF. The vertical dipole or its electromagnetic equivalent, the monopole, could be considered one of the best antennas for land mobile radio applications. motor to adjust the length of the antenna and the tap on the loading coil to adjust it's resonate frequency. for which I was hoping. A Top Loaded Vertical on 80/160 • Inverted L • “Tee” – vertical • Load it against radials or a counterpoise • Use what you can install – It doesn’t need to be perfect – Longer/bigger is better – Do your best and call CQ! A Top Loaded Vertical on 80/160 • Ideally would be quarter wave vertical – 70 ft on 80M – 135 ft. Fabricating The Loading Coil. Not only will the antenna serve me well at Pigeon House, it will make a good low-profile antenna option for Mt Kosciuszko. See Figure 2. The twinlead. Do this carefully so that the holes are opposite each other and in a straight line. coils wound on small plastic bottles 2. Loading coil calculated inductance µH The calculation refers to either a loaded 1/4 wave (typically a vertical, in which case flip the picture below through 90 o ) or a loaded dipole, in which case the dimensions refer refer to one arm and two coils will be required. 2dB better. Antenna Currents. The coil's Inductance is 118uH and requires 61 turns of close wound 0. 15 dBi) in the horizontal plane (2). This is an attempt to create a multi-band, end-fed halfwave using toroid cores for winding the loading coils. Eleven turns are close-wound near one end of the form. Another design by KB0ZZ is a little longer, but resonates on both 40m and 80m. Manufactured from extremely strong construction grade 6082-T6 Aluminium stock with a heavy duty boom and a wide-spaced High-Q loading coil. Guilty of Treeson Recommended for you. 00 Add to cart; CrankIR 80m Replacement Kit $ 255. Included is one 31' radial on a line winder for use on all bands 10 - 40m. 5 feet for the 40 meter section. The coil form is a one foot length of 2. My first few SOTA activations used a 40 meter dipole slung from branches at 5 or 6 meters. There is certainly lots of • Loading coil resistance - R. By using coils, it would provide a single wire baseline and maximize the loop height reduction. When installing a loading coil of substantial inductance in an electrically short antenna, sheetmetal and dielectrics should be kept away from the coil and areas of antenna above the loading coil. Conntect Mini Pod, Wolf River Coil, telescoping antenna and ground radials and you have a complete portable vertical antenna system. Remove the loading coil parts from the separate packaging. All hoisted up a 40ft pneumatic mast`as required` like changing sails on a yacht ! A K9AY receiving antenna is also in use - see it on YouTube here!. The radials will be automatically selected for example. Adjust the jumper lead tap position to obtain a low SWR on 40m. Our TRSB (Triple-Ratio Switch Balun) is an excellent product for these applications (see our accessories section). End loading the most efficient form of loading is used for 80m. Much of this is shipped in the form of coils. Base loading requires the smallest amount of inductance to achieve resonance. Moreover, it is very tall (almost 10m), thus quite impossible to make it perfectly vertical all the way up without proper guying. Coil is 16 turns 10AWG, 4 turns per inch on a 3. Had a little time to do some research on shortened 40m yagis. This is a base-loaded vertical antenna that mounts on the car's roof. It must be at least this large in diameter (>12 in. The 40 meter elements were trimmed for resonance at 7. This loading inductor is near the bottom of a 43-foot tall vertical. Full size dipole for 20 meters @ 35 feet long. 7 When to Use A Vertical • Larger commercial verticals on 40M-10M - Install high, with good radial system • Efficient wires on 160-80M - Low or on ground, with good radial system - Top loaded or full quarter wave • A few verticals don't need radials - Cushcraft R7000 is center-fed, W1JR design • To fill in nulls off ends of a high dipole When Not to Bother With A Vertical. 00! With that said, go look up the cost of one that is being sold in the magazines and on the web. An impedance matching/isolating transformer at the feed point. Full size dipole for 30 meters @ 47. 1500w max on 40/30m bands when using SmallIR coil. End loading the most efficient form of loading is used for 80m. long, about the size of a 40m dipole. 3a shows the input impedance with the base coil in place. If I have a too short dipole, or vertical, I can add a coil to lenghten in electrically. A high-Q loading coil should be placed near the center of the vertical radiator to minimize losses in a shortened vertical antenna. 5 Ohms with a loading coil = 4. You will be able to tune (‘match’) your previous monobander up on whatever frequency you like, and transmit to your heart’s content. After a successful experiment with a 1/4 wave vertical for 40m we wanted to build a vertical for 20m too. IK-STIC 2 vertical, all band, antenna, 25 feet tall, under 5 pounds! With a tuner covers the amateur radio HF bands from 40 - 10 Meters. It's not a great SWR curve due to the loading coil but I achieved 1. W1DYJ ~ Larry Banks DXCC WAS VUCC WAC 40M Vertical October 2014 A 40M l/4 Vertical with Elevated Radials Larry Banks, W1DYJ First licensed: 1962 (KN1VFX) W1DYJ since 1966 - Amateur Extra 10 Matthews Way Harpswell ME. This loading coil is a good example of why high-reactance loading inductors should be longer and narrower than inductors used in low-impedance systems. I wanted to use common household materials without making a trip to the. nov 13, 2014 - 43 foot multiband vertical high q add on 80m loading coil--new | zerofive-antennas Stay safe and healthy. You will be able to tune (‘match’) your previous monobander up on whatever frequency you like, and transmit to your heart’s content. coils wound on small plastic bottles 2. Resonance may also be observed at each of the odd. Place a 4-40 screw in each of the 16 holes on the capacitance spoke rings and secure them using a 4-40-kep nut. Theory of Coil Antennas Trilochan Fadhi Division of Engineering and Applied Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. For the 40M loading coil, I ended up with 29 turns of #22 enameled wire on a T130-2 toroid. But I was going to load the antenna with mid-element coils, per GM4JMU's design. Mark and drill hole pairs at 3 in. Product Code – 40M1TORHEAVY. Making a Remotely Switched Load Coil Now that you have built a flagpole antenna and the yard is filled with 32 buried radial wires to make a ground system you are ready for a tuner or better to make your own matching system. Many factors affects a coil's Q. 40m Linear-Loaded Dipole I stumbled-upon this antenna design whilst searching for something resonant, but not too lossy for 40m working. Example: 80m/40m/20m/ Etc. Distance from antenna base to the center of the coil in feet. Such a coil is obtained when the length of the loading coil is half the diameter, L/D = 0. The TZ-RD-1740 is a rotary dipole antenna designed to permit operation on the 6/17/40m bands. Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times. His confirmed report: “ Klaus, for the record, there. First it covers the whole 40m band without an ATU with an SWR of less than 2:1 from 7. The K7MEM website cited earlier also includes a good coil design program, the results of which are: D= 2-3/8" (2" PVC), N=26 closed-packed turns of #16 AWG enameled wire, resulting in a coil length of L = 1-7/16". For rigidity, the loading coil also requires two stiffeners made from common 3/4in. The DX Engineering Vertical Antenna Matching Network, DXE-VMN-1, is a custom-designed impedance matching coil that is used at the feedpoint of a low band HF quarter-wave vertical or a Hustler 4-BTV, 5-BTV or 6-BTV multi-band vertical antenna. This calculator is designed to give the vertical length (height) of a particular antenna, for the frequency and wavelength chosen. The loading coil is designed as a variable inductor, with a three-legged chariot that travels up and down inside the coil, with grooved brass wheels running on the coil turns, and driven by a slotted rotor tube. Making a compact dipole for 40 metre operation. I then began trimming the 80 meter elements. com: Bellevue, WA 98004. Four of the elements are marked with a single stripe and contain no loading coil. 4 microhenries. For the loading and matching-section coil forms, I use 11/4-inch-diameter pipe so the antenna can be mounted reasonably close to the vehicle. 065", 12 gauge is. The final design comprises: a vertical wire radiator 8. This antenna configuration produces a high angle of radiation, consists of a loading coil in each leg resulting in narrow bandwidth, and is only 18 feet at its apex. Eleven turns are close-wound near one end of the form. But during the ARRL /140 contest, it performed well and I made contacts on 10M, 20M, and 40M with it. Plastic end supports are used to eliminate the excessive RF losses that are common to many other screwdriver antennas that use metal end caps on their loading coils. 4 microhenries. A wide variety of coil loading car options are available to you, There are 584 suppliers who sells coil loading car on Alibaba. Base loading requires the smallest amount of inductance to achieve resonance. I cut a hole in the bottom of the trash container to fit over the toilet brush and mounted it upside down on the brush stand. Model an antenna with EZnec, and look at the load. Use our coil as a replacement coil for the Hy-Gain or other base vertical antennas using a tapped coil. I have used a dipole, vertical and loop previously. This antenna is an excellent performer, and ruggedly built. The Pulse X BF RDA features a unique top squonk feeding action and a bottom juice return design. Adjust the jumper lead tap position to obtain a low SWR on 40m. The coil is mounted on a 3/4" PVC pipe which slips into a 6" length of aluminum tubing. A center-loaded vertical of the same length is approx. 3MHz and better than 1. The 43 foot 10-160 meter Multi-Band Vertical antenna is a freestanding vertical element. hydraulic hand pump) and 3,500 lb. 71 - Tower Pole as a Vertical Antenna for 80m. The antenna is designed to be flexible so that it does not break easily, and the name is derived from the whip-like motion that it exhibits when disturbed. Do this carefully so that the holes are opposite each other and in a straight line. Please wash your hands and practise social distancing. io [mailto:[email protected] The loading coil is wound with 12 gauge bare copper on a couple of PVC 2 inch couplings joined together. One of my next projects will be building some Petlowany coils for 20 and 40m. The third version, again used the Edison bulb with a multi-tap coil for multiband operation. When choosing a mounting location, keep the following factors in mind: (1) Resonant frequency of HF antennas can change based on location. Construction Guide: Spiderbeam 40m Add-On Dipole 4 6. Hall, "Off-center loaded dipole antennas", QST Sept 1974, 28-34. By expanding, the copper tubes are closely fitted with the aluminum fins, so as to realize higher heat exchange efficiency. LOADING COILS - 36k bytes. (2) If installing HVC7 (40m) loading coil, install on top (vertical position) only. File the plastic support ends if the coil fits too tight, then hot-glue the coil in place (the bottom coil turn is soldered to the ground lug). Another design by KB0ZZ is a little longer, but resonates on both 40m and 80m. efficient vertical antenna requiring no radials and a 21° take-off angle. The coil at left is 1 inch in diameter, has 9 turns, and wound with #14 Thermalese ® (enameled) wire. Rain has left me indoors for a few days so I dug out my MFJ antenna analyzer and cut a 5-band short vertical for 40/20/17/15 meters with only 8-feet of space and it's working well for me so thought I'd share the project. 40M/80M Trap Dipole Stealth 40M Antenna - From Vertical Antenna Loading Coils-- see LOADCOIL * Design short vertical antenna and loading. On March 11th 2004 a test QSO was performed with ZS1YC Mossel Bay on 7068 MHz. The Mini Pod comes with 3 legs, center hub, 3/8 24. It is made with very high quality materials and the. • a small and easily built slightly off-centre* loading coil brings the vertical wire to resonance on 40, 20 and 15m and remains in place on all bands. I cut a hole in the bottom of the trash container to fit over the toilet brush and mounted it upside down on the brush stand. A design by VK3JEG is only 66-ft. Our TRSB (Triple-Ratio Switch Balun) is an excellent product for these applications (see our accessories section). com: for the 40M vertical i have over 0220khz of <2:1 swr on 80M about 160khz, i've tried a shunt resistor to change the bw on the 80M but didn;t really. Traps for 80 / 160 meter band Dipole or inverted V tuned as a pair. The loading coil was wound on the plastic trash container. The best 4 element 40m duodriven monoband-Yagi of the world: The OptiBeam high Q air coil reduces the length of the elements nearly lossfree down to clearly below convenient 15 meters. I built a vertical out of a 5M aluminium pipe. The cores are each about 6" long - not a critical measurement. However the use of the loading coil and hat produce a much narrower range of usable frequencies on 80m compared to 40m. The top of the coil directly bonds to the upper vertical section with a jumper wire (hidden) on the far side of the plastic. OK, so let's get back to my linear loaded vertical for 40 and 80 metres. 5 Ohms with a loading coil = 5. 6 SWR on 40m. The DS1 Antenna is a small, portable, vertical antenna system for 40m thru 10m. The coils have a ID of 4" inches. His confirmed report: “ Klaus, for the record, there. For some while, SteppIR has offered two vertical versions of this adjustable length antenna: one for 6-20 meters, the other 6-40 meters. We had 1 of this item in stock at the time of the last update. 15 dBi) in the horizontal plane (2). Short vertical antennas (such as a short tower one might wish to use as a radiator on 160 Meters) can be resonated to the desired frequency simply by adding the appropriate spiral coil consisting of a wire length of approximately 1/4 wave attached to the uppermost portion of the tower or its mast. Our TRSB (Triple-Ratio Switch Balun) is an excellent product for these applications (see our accessories section). io [mailto:[email protected] It has a plain interior because I believe that the center should contain supporting structure such as a piece of ABS plumbing pipe, or a wooden dowel epoxied in place. Attic Dipole with Loading Coils. The telescopic antenna and the MFJ-67 loading coils are ⅜ " - 24 threaded and can be easily combined. This is a top-loaded 80/40 meter vertical which replaced my Butternut once I installed a tower with a beam, and no longer needed a vertical to operate above 40 meters. 00! With that said, go look up the cost of one that is being sold in the magazines and on the web. A technique such as Petlowany loading is also a possibility, see my washing line antenna. o /4 ≈130' and many times that height is not possible. 725" long x 23 turns = 30. An Attic Coaxial-Cable Trap Dipole for 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 80 Meters John DeGood, NU3E [email protected] The coil tunes the 40m match. Post #1101. To get to 110µF I used 76 turns. If the coil were totally removed it would make a respectible 40M short vertical. Making a Remotely Switched Load Coil Now that you have built a flagpole antenna and the yard is filled with 32 buried radial wires to make a ground system you are ready for a tuner or better to make your own matching system. A lightweight wire radiator follows the length of the pole and is attached to the bottom of the coil, the radiator continues from the top of the coil to the high end if the whip. Centre loaded on 80M. Ham Radio 40/80/160 Meter Inverted V Dipole Antenn Six Meter Home Brew Dipole Antenna. Discussion in 'Amateur Radio Antennas' started by kc0ycs, Nov 28, 2011. The capacitance elements can cause injury and or severe RF burns. Make an Offer. >- By using 40m hamsticks and maybe center loading coil and extenders tuning >to 80m possible? >- Then also operating on 40m without extenders OK >- 80 operation only needed for domestic qsos, no DX >- On 30m and 20m hamstick dipole would work OK > >Any comments on these? > >73 Jouko OH5RM > > Ok, the antenna is portable. The coax feeder has to be routed as far away from the lower part of the antenna as possible. Cut the coil at 63 turns and unwrap the wire to 61 turns. An overview of a coil form I made recently with my 3D printer, pushing the limits of the size of things I can print with the monoprice 3D printer. (And all my responsibility is hereby disclaimed!) I haven't personally tested these designs, but others have and found them to be satisfactory. The coil is mounted on a 3/4″ PVC pipe which slips into a 6″ length of aluminum tubing. I remember making one coil that was 16" long, and consisted of 1/2" soft copper water line wound around a 20" form. While I was at it, I extended the coil for operation on 80M as well. The purpose of the loading coil at the base of the 3/4 λ Collinear monopole is to improve the VSWR. Vertical dipole for 20m (no coils) and 40m (w. Works very nicely for such a simple setup. The 43 foot 10-160 meter Multi-Band Vertical antenna is a freestanding vertical element. Product Code - 40M1TORHEAVY. After a successful experiment with a 1/4 wave vertical for 40m we wanted to build a vertical for 20m too. Form the bare copper wire into a circle to create the ground bus wire and solder. Manufactured from extremely strong construction grade 6082-T6 Aluminium stock with a heavy duty boom and a wide-spaced High-Q loading coil. I wanted to use common household materials without making a trip to the. Full size dipole for 30 meters @ 47. Loading coil explained. The term originated in the 19th century for inductors used to prevent signal distortion in long-distance telegraph transmission cables. 2013/11/02 日本語は下にあります。 [email protected] This is the reason why we need a transformer that transforms the very high impedance at the end of the “dipole” down to the 50 Ohm impedance of our transceiver. However the use of the loading coil and hat produce a much narrower range of usable frequencies on 80m compared to 40m. I decided to add a loading coil to operate it on 40M, and it also worked fine, albeit not so wide.
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